County documented: documented Spotted knapweed is very aggres- sive, and can infest large areas very quickly. They damage the efficiency and biodiversity of ecosystems through both direct (e.g. 4)Why is spotted knapweed not a pest in its native habitat in Europe? stoebe). Facts. Flowers: The flowers are light purple, aromatic, and found individually or in clusters on the stems.The bracts have black tips, giving the plant its spotted appearance. × The hybrid, known from Spotted knapweed has allelopathic (toxic) properties, also reducing the native plant communities. Various herbicides have been used successfully. you. However, an evident pappus always crowns the ovary, 
and the marginal flowers of the capitulum are falsely radiant (pappus absent and marginal flowers not enlarged in Habitat: Spotted Knapweed infests vacant lots, pastures, rangeland, roadsides, stream banks and landscaping. Daisies, goldenrods, and other aster family plants, Show Spotted knapweed, Centaurea maculosa, was introduced to America via contaminated alfalfa and clover seed in the 1890s; it made its way to Canada in 1893. ND-Spotted Knapweed (NDSU Extension) (CEBI2) NJ-Rutgers Cooperative Extension (CEBI2) OH-Ohio Perennial and Biennial Weed Guide (CESTM) PA-Pennsylvania Flora Abstract (CESTM) Plant Conservation Alliance-Alien Plant Working Group (CESTM) TNC-Global Invasive Species Initiative (CESTM) USDA FS Fire Effects Information System (FEIS) (CESTM) Habitat Spotted knapweed is a highly adaptable plant. Spotted knapweed [Centaurea stoebeL. C. diffusa). How could spotted knapweed be spread through the province? Local Concern: Spotted knapweed is poisonous to other plants, creating barren areas where only knapweed grows. It was probably introduced to North America from Europe as a contaminent in alfalfa seed or in ships' ballast. It forms deep taproots allowing it to capture moisture and nutrients and spreads rapidly, displacing native vegetation and reducing the forage potential for wildlife and livestock. It is now a common weed of roadsides and pastures in Minnesota. Roots - Spotted knapweed has a deep taproot that is thick and often perennial. This taxon has long been known as GENERAL BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS: Spotted knapweed is a nonnative, perennial forb that can live at least 9 years.Plants more than 7 years old may have high incidence of root rot, indicatingsenescence [16]. Spotted knapweed prefers well-drained, light-textured soils that receive summer rainfall. A sound management plan will take a commitment of several years to achieve satisfactory results, especially on older stands that have an established seed bank. Spotted knapweed thrives in exposed areas with well-drained soil. It is found growing in a wide range of natural and disturbed habitats. Typically invading natural areas, pastures, forest and field margins, mining areas, and unmaintained gravel pits, it is also commonly found along roads, railways, and trails. Gáyer is a rare knapweed hybrid in New 
England that is frequently confused with Spotted knapweed is more intolerant to dense shade and prefers moister habitats than diffuse knapweed; however, spotted knapweed is still a problem in forested areas disturbed by Centaurea stoebe, the spotted knapweed or panicled knapweed, is a species of Centaurea native to eastern Europe. Begin… It is commonly found on dry roadsides, gravel pits, disturbed sites, and in fields. It was probably introduced to North America from Europe as a contaminent in alfalfa seed or in ships' ballast. Habitat: Both species prefer open areas and well-drained soils and can become established in grasslands, open forests, and along roadsides and right-of-ways. auct. Spotted knapweed infestations in North Dakota can largely be traced to seed or hay brought in from nei… Centaurea stoebe ssp. decreased by 88% after the invasion of spotted knapweed (Watson … Spotted and Diffuse Knapweed (Centaurea maculosa, C. diffusa) Aster Family / Thistle SubfamilyBy Thomas J. Elpel with additions by Pamela G. Sherman About Spotted and Diffuse Knapweed: There are about 500 species of Centaurea around the world, including the harmless annual corn flower or bachelor's button (C. cyanus).Spotted knapweed (C. maculosa) first arrived in this country in about … If it has a preference, it will thrive in sunny, arid conditions in course Habitats in the eastern US include old fields, roadsides, and areas with open, sandy soils. Habitat: Adult Emergence: Egg Laying: Larva Development: F1: Adult Life Span: Over Winters: G: Wherever Spotted knapweed occurs: 12 to 16 days after innoculation: N/A: N/A : N/A: Pustules on stem and leaves: ATTACK: COLLECTION: NOTES: Stage: Damage: Life Stage: Method: Rust spreads by wind-spread spores. NH, Infestations often form monocultures and can even extend into Hand-pulling alone can be effective in sandier soils. All Characteristics, leaves are compound (made up of two or more discrete leaflets), leaves are simple (i.e., lobed or unlobed but not separated into leaflets), at least a part of the plume is made up of fine bristles, there is no plume, or the plume is made up of scales, awns, a crown, or a rim, the bracts are hairy on their outer surfaces, with curled, tangled, matted, or woolly hairs, the bracts are not hairy on their outer surface, the bracts are hairy on their outer surfaces, the bracts are not hairy on their outer surfaces, the tips of the bracts acute (have a sharp point), the tips of the bracts are obtuse (have a blunt point), the flower head is shaped like a cone with the point up, the sides of the flower head are roughly parallel, like a cylinder, the ovary has five or more corners in cross-section, in profile, the ovary is oblong (roughly rectangular but rounded at the ends), in profile, the ovary is roughly elliptical (widest in the middle, tapering to both ends), the underside of the leaf is fuzzy or hairy, the underside of the leaf is not hairy, or has very few hairs, the leaf blade is lanceolate (lance-shaped; widest below the middle and tapering at both ends), the leaf blade is oblong (rectangular but with rounded ends), the leaf blade is ovate (widest below the middle and broadly tapering at both ends), the leaf has a row of two or more lobes on each side of the central axis, the leaves are simple (i.e., lobed or unlobed but not separated into leaflets, the stem has wings on it that run down the stem from the leaf nodes. populations both exist in a county, only native status Habitat: Both species prefer open areas and well-drained soils and can become established in grasslands, open forests, and along roadsides and right-of-ways. During the winter, knapweed plants will break off at the base of the stem and form tumbleweeds. ... Habitat. Cultivars include a range of flower colors from white and pink, to blue-purple. forest clearings and on the sandy or gravelly floodplains of streams and rivers Spotted knapweed gets its name from the black-tipped spots on the bracts. Native Range: Eurasia. Habitat. Spotted Knapweed Flower Weevil (Larinus spp) Introduced from Greece and Romania and originally released in the USA in 1991. In the first year, the plant is a low-lying rosette with deeply lobed leaves and a thick taproot. Spotted Knapweed (Centaurea maculosa), native to Eastern Europe, is an invasive species on the North American continent. state. Many spotted knapweed infestations start on rights of-way or from infested gravel or fill. All non-native invasive species, including Japanese knotweed, black locust, and spotted knapweed, are a concern at the refuge. Brown knapweed is an invasive species on the Prohibited Eradicate List. The Go Botany project is supported It can be found at various elevations, in moist or dry conditions, is shade tolerant but can be commonly found in sunny areas and prefers well drained or gravel/sandy soils. ×‌psammogena Habitat: Found in meadows, roadsides, native grasslands, pastures, and waste places. It is also an invasive species in the United States, and particularly widespread in dryer regions of the Pa is shown on the map. Habitat Occurs in rangeland, meadows, roadsides, open and sandy soils. In the second year, the plant bolts, producing stout, branching stems with alternate leaves having few to no lobes, and becoming progressively smaller up the stem. higher-quality food sources. Spotted Knapweed is native to southeastern Europe, and introduced to the whole of Europe, northward to Sweden (FNA 2006). It outcompetes native plant species, reduces native plant and animal biodiversity, and decreases forage production for livestock and wildlife. On some pasture land, spotted knapweed can occupy up to 95% of the available plant community. Infestations have also been shown to increase the erosion of topsoil, further altering the surrounding habitat and natural system. Executive Office Montana Weed Control Association, Inc. PO Box 315, Twin Bridges, MT 59754 (406) 684-5590 | (888) 664-4153 (fax) Knapweed (Centaurea nigra) is wild, edible and nutritious food. It tends to inhabit moister habitats than diffuse. • Spotted knapweed decreases habitat for live-stock and deer and elk. Mowing before flowering can reduce seed production. Priority 2B Weed: Abundant in Montana and widespread in … Plant must be destroyed and transportation, propagation, or sale of these plants is prohibited. Root: Taproot. Habitat and conservation This invasive plant prefers sunny, well-drained soils. Spotted knapweed prefers dry, sandy soils. During the winter, knapweed plants will break off at the base of the stem and form tumbleweeds. Flowers: The flowers are light purple, aromatic, and found individually or in clusters on the stems.The bracts have black tips, giving the plant its spotted appearance. Spotted knapweed threatens wildlife habitat, pastures, and grasses, and causes problems for Christmas tree growers. This can be an effective tool in combination with other methods of control. Found this plant? • Similar soil and habitat types preferences to spotted knapweed including open forests, pasture lands, roadsides and ditches • Introduced to Ontario • Similar habitat type to spotted and diffuse knapweed but its tolerance for poorly drained, saline, alkaline soils, extends its range to … micranthos (Gugler) Hayek (ITIS) Synonym: Centaurea biebersteinii DC., Centaurea maculosa auct. Seeds are dispersed by rodents, livestock and commercial hay. CT, MA, ME, The sap of spotted knapweed can cause skin irritation in some people. Spotted knapweed is a biennial or short-lived perennial herbaceous plant that grows two to three feet tall. Scientific Name: Centaurea stoebe L. subsp. If you plan to use herbicide treatments, check with your, Biological control is an option for reducing large infestations; there are natural enemies that feed specifically on this plant. Involucral bract appendages are usually brown to 
black (rarely light brown), and appendage spines are absent or short (spine mostly 
1 mm long or shorter). Spotted & Diffuse Knapweed Species Centaurea biebersteinii & Centaurea diffusa. Spotted knapweed is a very competitive invasive that can out-compete native species. Spotted knapweed gets its name from the black-tipped spots on the bracts. Wash equipment thoroughly following mowing to prevent spread of seeds to new areas. It has become a serious problem of pastures and rangeland in the western United States. • Spotted knapweed decreases habitat for live- stock and deer and elk. The seeds are 2.5 mm long, oval, brown to black with pale longitudinal lines and bear a persistent pappus of simple bristles that are 1 mm to 2mm long. modifying habitat or changing dynamics of native species) interactions (Groom et al. Prefers light textured, well-drained soils that receive summer rainfall and ample sunlight. Click below on a thumbnail map or name for subspecies profiles. Habitat & Ecology. Centaurea stoebe 2) What animals eat it? Go Botany: Native Plant Trust Spotted knapweed is found at elevations from sea level up to and over 10,000 feet and in precipitation zones receiving 8 to 80 inches of rain annually. Spotted knapweed is more intolerant to dense shade and prefers moister habitats than diffuse knapweed; however, spotted knapweed is still a problem in forested areas disturbed by Discover thousands of New England plants. Blooming occurs from June through August. DISTRIBUTION AND HABITAT Spotted knapweed was accidentally introduced into North America from Eastern Europe and Asia Minor in the late 1800s. It is often found in heavily disturbed sites, such as roadsides, gravel pits, and edges of agricultural fields, but it moves from those areas into undisturbed pastures, dry prairies, oak and pine woodlands, and rangeland. Spotted knapweed is very aggres-sive, and can infest large areas very quickly. Exact status definitions can vary from state to The whole site needs to be considered, not just the weed. Location in Nebraska. Controlling small stands is crucial to prevent larger problems from occurring, as large, established stands can be difficult to control. Spotted knapweed Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae: Angiosperms: Eudicots: Asterids Order: Asterales Family: Asteraceae Tribe: Cynareae Genus: Centaurea Species: C. stoebe Binomial name Centaurea stoebe Lam. Habitats in the eastern US include old fields, roadsides, and areas with open, sandy soils. Quick facts. It is a threat to pastures and dry ecosystems including prairies and dunes. C. maculosa, And while Pulling is easiest when soil is moist; allowing you … Spotted knapweed is a native of Europe and Asia. It also produces a chemical that is toxic to other plants, allowing it to spread quickly and become established. Allelopathic (able to stop the germination or growth of other plants), and can hybridize, making identification difficult. Habitat: Native to Eastern Europe, spotted knapweed is commonly found on well-drained, light to coarse textured soils, but is intolerant of dense shade. Its invasion can also increase surface wa-ter runoff and soil erosion, and reduce nesting habitat for some song-bird species. In Nevada, there are records of this weed in White Pine, Lincoln, Washoe, Elko, and Nye counties. It was introduced into North America as a contaminant in alfalfa (Medicago sativa) in Victoria, British Columbia in 1883 (Sheley and Petroff 1999). Habitat. Impacts Ecological: Chemical properties of spotted knapweed alters soil habitat, displacing native and agricultural vegetation. Habitat: Native to Eastern Europe, spotted knapweed is commonly found on well-drained, light to coarse textured soils, but is intolerant of dense shade. Once established, spotted knapweed can form monotypic standsbecause its age class hierarchy allows it to occupy all available niches [173]. Habitat Control Methods: Spotted Knapweed control may include a combination of control methods. Habitat & Ecology. Habitat: Spotted knapweed is found at elevations up to and over 10,000 feet and in precipitation zones receiving 8 to 80 inches of rain annually. MANAGEMENT OPTIONS: Handpulling: This is an extremely effective method on small-scale infestations of spotted knapweed. Description. 2005). Non-native: introduced Dig out and remove as much of the long tap root as possible. It is most common in sunny habitats with well-drained or gravelly soils. Efforts must be made to prevent seed maturation and dispersal of plants into new areas. Regular site check-ups will be required to ensure that re-sprouting and new seedlings are destroyed. For more information about noxio… Cattle and other animals avoid eating it so it can cause large reductions in available food for grazing animals. Spotted knapweed is a Class B noxious weed. Spotted knapweed threatens wildlife habitat and pastures because of its ability to quickly move from disturbed sites into relatively undisturbed, beneficial plant communities. Spotted knapweed is a biennial or short-lived perennial herbaceous plant that grows two to three feet tall. Toll Free: 800-967-2474 711 TTY, © Copyright 2021 Minnesota Department of Agriculture, Farm, Property, Real Estate Listing (MN FarmLink), Agriculture Chemical Response & Reimbursement Account, Agricultural Best Management Practices (AgBMP) Loan, Agricultural Growth, Research & Innovation (AGRI) Program, Sustainable Agriculture Demonstration (AGRI), More Business Development, Loans, Grants Topics, Minnesota Ag Water Quality Certification Program, Certified Testing Laboratories (soil & manure), Fertilizer Tonnage Reporting & Inspection Fees, Pesticide Dealer Licensing & Sales Reporting, local University of Minnesota extension agent, Spotted knapweed lifecycle and treatment timing graphic, Department of Natural Resources fact sheet. Anthropogenic (man-made or disturbed habitats), meadows and fields. Seed production of spotted knapweed in western Montana ranged from 10,760 to 83,950 per square foot on an Idaho fescue habitat-type (Jacobs and Sheley, 1998), was measured at It is found along rivers and creeks in relatively dry disturbed sites. E. spotted knapweed. Native Introduced Native and Introduced. Property owners in King County are required to control this plant. Spotted knapweed prefers dry, sandy soils. Report a Sighting. Habitat: Often found in open fields or scrub-shrub areas with poor soils or sands and also in disturbed areas, hay fields and pastures. Spotted knapweed reproduces only by seeds. those considered historical (not seen in 20 years). Spotted knapweed infestations have been associated with reductions in forage production [60,220], plant species richness and diversity [203,205], cryptogam cover , soil fertility [65,136,231], and wildlife habitat , as well as increases in bare ground , surface water runoff, and stream sedimentation . to exist in the county by The Minnesota Department of Agriculture (MDA), in cooperation with the Minnesota Association of County Agricultural Inspectors, oversees a. Watson and Renny (1974) found that the yield of bluebunch wheatgrass [Pseudoroegneria spicata (Parsh) Love] decreased as the production of spotted knapweed increased.The production of bluebunch wheatgrass-rough fescue (Festuca scabrella Torr.) Brown knapweed grows in disturbed sunny areas such as road ditches and woodland clearings. Spotted knapweed prefers well-drained, light-textured soils that receive summer rainfall. This species is also on the Washington quarantine list (known as the prohibited plants list) and it is prohibited to transport, buy, sell, offer for sale, or to distribute plants or plant parts, seeds in packets, blends or \"wildflower mixes\" of this species, into or within the state of Washington. Centaurea Flowers are small, oval, pink to purple, produced at the end of branched stems and covered with stiff bracts marked with dark, upside-down “V” markings, giving them a spotted appearance. All rights reserved. It was introduced into North America as a contaminant in alfalfa (Medicago sativa) in Victoria, British Columbia in 1883 (Sheley and Petroff 1999). Pulling is easiest when soil is moist; allowing you … Additionally, no transportation, propagation, or sale of these plants is allowed. spp. Spotted knapweed is a tap-rooted plant that can be controlled with cultivation to a depth of 7 inches, or hand removal. Common name(s): Spotted knapweed Scientific name: Centaurea stoebe Family: Sunflower or Aster family (Asteraceae) Reasons for concern: This plant is a prolific seed producer. General: Spotted Knapweed is a biennial or short-lived perennial.It starts out as a rosette and can remain that way for several years before bolting and dying in a subsequent season. Your help is appreciated. Diffuse knapweed is a shortlived, non-creeping perennial, a biennial, or occasionally an annual that reproduces and spreads solely from seed. U. S. Distribution: Throughout most of the U.S. and Canada. Roots: Spotted knapweed has a stout taproot. knapweed, preferring areas that receive 30–50 cm annual precipitation, but it can survive in very dry Take a photo and Growth habitat: Erect, ... Mowing or cutting is ineffective as spotted knapweed can bloom at mowed height and poorly timed mowing can increase seed production or disperse seeds. ; however, this name properly applies to a strictly biennial knapweed with larger capitula 
(and is included in Spotted knapweed is highly invasive and, therefore, can severely decrease the biological diversity of native and agronomic habitats by reducing the availability of desirable forage for livestock operations, degrading wildlife habitats, and hindering reforestation and landscape restoration efforts. There is no evidence at this time to show that spotted or diffuse knapweed is toxic to horses. 13. Habitat Top of page Spotted knapweed infests roadsides, waste areas, plains and dry rangelands and prefers well-drained, light-textured soils. It is also an invasive species in the United States, and particularly widespread in dryer regions of the West, which has a similarly dry climate as the Mediterranean. It prefers moister habitats than Diffuse knapweed, but is intolerant of constant moisture. 2006). This weevil typically prefers hot, dry sites with dense stands of knapweed in well-drained, coarse soils. C. stoebe L. ssp. non Lam. Spotted Knapweed is one of 3 targeted plant species in Minnesota with an active bio-control program, the other 2 species are leafy spurge and purple loosestrife. landscape and have lowered habitat value for migratory birds, land animals and native plants alike. Note: when native and non-native Native To: Europe (Zouhar 2001) Centaurea diffusa Also covers Knapweed invasions cause losses averaging up to 63 percent of available grazing forage. image, please click it to see who you will need to contact. It prefers moister habitats than diffuse knapweed, but is intolerant of constant moisture. Spotted knapweed has a deep, stout taproot and basal rosette leaves that grow up to 8 inches (20 cm) long and 2 inches (5 cm) wide. It grows on heavily disturbed sites, roadsides, agricultural field margins, undisturbed dry Fairly widespread in Nebraska, particularly in the northern counties. Spotted knapweed is a serious threat to the rangelands of the western United States. Synonyms Centaurea beibersteinii Centaurea biebersteinii Walp. Spotted knapweed is found in artificial corridors such as gravel pits, railroad beds and field margins, and can spread to adjacent intact woodlands and prairies. Spotted knapweed is invading rangeland throughout the western United States. Spotted knapweed is an aggressive, introduced weed species that rapidly invades pasture, rangeland, and fallow land and causes a serious decline in forage and crop production. (ITIS) Common Name: Spotted knapweed. State documented: documented 5)Populations of spotted knapweed are present in Alberta. Can be a … Seed production of spotted knapweed in western Montana ranged from 10,760 to 83,950 per square foot on an Idaho fescue habitat-type (Jacobs and Sheley, 1998), was measured at Seedlings usually stay in the rosette stage through the … Habitat: Native to Eastern Europe, spotted knapweed is commonly found on well-drained, light to coarse textured soils, but is Intolerant of dense shade. Can rapidly form virtual monocultures in disturbed sites and adjacent native plant communities. General: Spotted Knapweed is a biennial or short-lived perennial.It starts out as a rosette and can remain that way for several years before bolting and dying in a subsequent season. It prefers moister habitats than Diffuse knapweed, but is intolerant of constant moisture. Spotted knapweed roots exude a chemical that inhibits the root growth of other plants. It prefers well-drained soil and full sun. It is considered the “most problematic invasive species in North America” (Emery et al. micranthos (Gugler) Hayek. Spotted knapweed, flowers - USDA APHIS PPQ, Oxford, North Carolina. 1998). → For details, please check with your state. To reuse an 4×13. Leaf Shape: Rosette leaves deeply lobed, linear mature leaves. Spotted knapweed has 25 to 35 purple to pink (rarely white) flowers per head that bloom from June to October. predation or hybridization) and indirect (e.g. These species limit the productivity of wildlife habitat… Persistent pulling or digging can control spotted knapweed (Duncan et al. micranthos Seedling: Rosettes of spotted and diffuse knapweed are nearly indistinguishable. ; All the purple blooms are for 1 plant!! L. ssp. micranthos (Gugler) Hayek]. It does tend to grow in moister habitats than diffuse knapweed. 625 Robert Street North the state. Spotted knapweed is found at elevations from sea level up to and over 10,000 feet and in precipitation zones receiving 8 to 80 inches of rain annually. Centaurea biebersteinii DC. C. maculosa Lam. Failure to comply may result in enforcement action by the county or local municipality. 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