Unlike Turkey, where the Ottomans fairly quickly re-established control, Persia languished in chaos for around a century before Shah Ismail I (1487–1524) and his "Red Head" (Qizilbash) Turks were able to defeat rival factions and reunite the country by about 1511. The Safavid Empire was not a conquest state: Safavid conquest did not imply a change in the form of administration. In this period, handicrafts such as tile making, pottery and textiles developed and great advances were made in miniature painting, bookbinding, decoration and calligraphy. Examples of Cultural Blending in the Safavid Empire Military Two armies were created by Shah Abbas. 186–7. Configuración The Safavid Empire The Safavid Empire Conquest and ongoing cultural interaction also fueled the development of another empire known as the Safavids. Then, having made the point that he would not encourage rivalries even purporting to favor his interests, he felt secure enough to have Murshid Quli Khan assassinated on his own orders in July 1589. The Ilkhanid ruler Öljaitü converted to Twelver Shiʻism in the 13th century. During his reign he had realized while both looking to his own empire and that of the neighboring Ottomans, that there were dangerous rivalling factions and internal family rivalries that were a threat to the heads of state. There had been, however, Shi'a communities in some cities like Qom and Sabzevar as early as eighth century. As non-Turcoman converts to Islam, these Circassian and Georgian ḡolāmāns (also written as ghulams) were completely unrestrained by clan loyalties and kinship obligations, which was an attractive feature for a ruler like Tahmāsp whose childhood and upbringing had been deeply affected by Qezelbāš tribal politics. Blow, David. After subsequent campaigns, the Safavids recaptured Baghdad in 1623 during the Ottoman–Safavid War (1623–39) yet lost it again to Murad IV in 1638 after Abbas had died. "Review of Emile Janssens'. [61] The Chaldiran battle also holds historical significance as the start of over 300 years of frequent and harsh warfare fueled by geo-politics and ideological differences between the Ottomans and the Iranian Safavids (as well as successive Iranian states) mainly regarding territories in Eastern Anatolia, the Caucasus, and Mesopotamia. They swear to a good fight and shake hands. It was from this time that the division of the Shiʻa world into mujtahid (those who could follow their own independent judgment) and muqallid (those who had to follow the rulings of a mujtahid) took place. But this soon was not the case when the military was defeated in a battle by the Ottomans. These cities were later inherited by his Abdali Afghan military commander, Ahmad Shah Durrani, who would go on to found the Durrani Empire in 1747. Although the first slave soldiers would not be organized until the reign of Abbas I, during Tahmāsp's time Caucasians would already become important members of the royal household, Harem and in the civil and military administration,[83][84] and by that becoming their way of eventually becoming an integral part of the society. [68] The victory resulted at least in part from Safavid use of firearms, which they had been acquiring and drilling with since Chaldiran.[69]. Stanford Jay Shaw. [150][151] In the Ottoman–Iranian War (1730–35), he retook all territories lost by the Ottoman invasion of the 1720s, as well as beyond. The two princes quarrelled and eventually Bayezid rebelled against his father. In 1619 he appointed the loyal Simon II (or Semayun Khan) on the symbolic throne of Kakheti, while placing a series of his own governors to rule of districts where rebellious inhabitants were mostly located. [160], Also among the aristocracy, in the middle of the hierarchical pyramid, were the religious officials, who, mindful of the historic role of the religious classes as a buffer between the ruler and his subjects, usually did their best to shield the ordinary people from oppressive governments. Also the William L. Cleveland and Martin P. Bunton. Abbas I also supported direct trade with Europe, particularly England and The Netherlands which sought Persian carpet, silk and textiles. Ismail took over the brotherhood when his brother, the prior leader of the order, died. [147], The country was repeatedly raided on its frontiers—Kerman by Baloch tribes in 1698, Khorasan by the Hotakis in 1717, Dagestan and northern Shirvan by the Lezgins in 1721, constantly in Mesopotamia by Sunni peninsula Arabs. Eskandar Beg, pp. Religious and political power were completely intertwined, and encapsulated in … [46] As such, he was the last in the line of hereditary Grand Masters of the Safaviyeh order, prior to its ascent to a ruling dynasty. Despite their demise in 1736, the legacy that they left behind was the revival of Iran as an economic stronghold between East and West, the establishment of an efficient state and bureaucracy based upon "checks and balances", their architectural innovations and their patronage for fine arts. [191], As for the royal household, the highest post was that of the Nazir, Court Minister. The Safavid and Ottoman dynasties were both of Turkish ethnicity. [54] The Ottoman sultans addressed him as the king of Iranian lands and the heir to Jamshid and Kai Khosrow.[55]. But it was not the Turkish of Istanbul. "IRAN ix. The Takkalu replaced the Rumlu as the dominant tribe. In the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries, the Safavid Empire began to disintegrate. Blow, David; Shah Abbas: The ruthless king who became an Iranian legend, pp. They finally arrived at the court of Philip III of Spain in 1602. 34, 597–634. [80] Therefore, in 1540, Shah Tahmāsp started the first of a series of invasions of the Caucasus region, both meant as a training and drilling for his soldiers, as well as mainly bringing back massive numbers of Christian Circassian and Georgian slaves, who would form the basis of a military slave system,[81] alike to the janissaries of the neighbouring Ottoman Empire,[82] as well as at the same time forming a new layer in Iranian society composed of ethnic Caucasians. But his responsibilities also included that of being the treasurer of the Shah's properties. Abbas was able to begin gradually transforming the empire from a tribal confederation to a modern imperial government by transferring provinces from mamalik (provincial) rule governed by a Qizilbash chief and the revenue of which mostly supported local Qizilbash administration and forces to khass (central) rule presided over by a court appointee and the revenue of which reverted to the court. Abbas I recognized the commercial benefit of promoting the arts—artisan products provided much of Iran's foreign trade. Iran's neighbors seized the opportunity to attack. (ed.). A leisurely form of amusement was to be found in the cabarets, particularly in certain districts, like those near the mausoleum of Harun-e Velayat. This tie of state and religion will lead to problems in the future for the Safavid Empire. When Abbas had a lively conversation in Turkish with the Italian traveller Pietro Della Valle, in front of his courtiers, he had to translate the conversation afterwards into Persian for the benefit of most of those present. It was just a brief setback, however, as Abbas had already been making long-term plans to prevent further incursions. Start studying Safavid Empire. The army of Christian northerners were modeled after Ottoman janissaries, shown in [148][full citation needed] At the same time, the Russians led by Peter the Great attacked and conquered swaths of Safavid Iran's North Caucasian, Transcaucasian, and northern mainland territories through the Russo-Iranian War (1722-1723). Poetry lacked the royal patronage of other arts and was hemmed in by religious prescriptions. Sultan Husayn (1694–1722) in particular was known for his love of wine and disinterest in governance. Last but by no means least there were the palace eunuchs who were also ghulams – "white" eunuchs largely from the Caucasus, and "black" eunuchs from India and Africa. The revenue came not so much from exports, as from the custom charges and transit dues levied on goods passing through the country. This action coincided with the accession to the Ottoman throne in 1512 of Sultan Selim I, Bayezid II's son, and it was the casus belli leading to Selim's decision to invade neighbouring Safavid Iran two years later.[60]. The loyal Qizibash recoiled at their treatment by Mirza Salman, who they resented for a number of reasons (not least of which was the fact that a Tajik was given military command over them), and demanded that he be turned over to them. Travelling was valued only for the specific purpose of getting from one place to another, not interesting them self in seeing new places and experiencing different cultures. Astrakhan came under Russian rule, nearing the Safavid possessions in Dagestan. Shah Abbas ordered a general massacre in Beradost and Mukriyan (Mahabad, reported by Eskandar Beg Monshi, Safavid Historian (1557–1642), in "Alam Ara Abbasi") and resettled the Turkic Afshar tribe in the region while deporting many Kurdish tribes to Khorasan. The qizilbash were cooperative when it came to this, because they were as much a mystical movement as a military one. [99] More seriously the Ottomans ended the Peace of Amasya and commenced a war with Iran that would last until 1590 by invading Iran's territories of Georgia and Shirvan. And the Naqsh-e Jahan Square ("Examplar of the World"). In 1559 Bayezid arrived in Iran where Tahmasp gave him a warm welcome. While the initial attacks were repelled, the Ottomans continued and grabbed considerable territory in Transcaucasia, Dagestan, Kurdistan and Luristan and in 993/1585 they even took Tabriz.[100]. His oldest son, the crown prince Mohammad Baqer Mirza, was executed following a court intrigue in which several Circassians were involved, while two others were blinded. H.R. Due to the great spiritual charisma of Safi al-Din, the order was later known as the Safaviyya. Pari Khān Khānum, sister of Ismail and Mohammad, hoped to act as regent for any of the three (including her older brother, who was nearly blind). Safavid dynasty, (1501–1736), ruling dynasty of Iran whose establishment of Twelver Shiʿism as the state religion of Iran was a major factor in the emergence of a unified national consciousness among the various ethnic and linguistic elements of the country. In private they usually wore a veil that only covered the hair and the back, but upon leaving the home, they put on manteaus, large cloaks that concealed their whole bodies except their faces. This Bakhtrioni Uprising was successfully defeated under personal direction of Shah Abbas II himself. The Safavid dynasty under Shah Ismail (961/1501) adopted Persian and the Shiʻite form of Islam as the national language and religion. The status of physicians during the Safavids stood as high as ever. Roemer, The Safavid Period, in Cambridge History of Iran, Vol. Plus, they are further outcast by the fact that the Mughals and Ottomans are Sunni; the Safavids are Shi’a. The Judge is seated at one end of the room having a writer and a man of law by his side. Beginning in the 1400’s, The Ottomans built a huge empire in the Middle East, Eastern Europe, and North Africa. The 'Amili (Lebanese scholars of Shiʻi faith) operating through the Court-based religious posts, were forced to master the Persian language; their students translated their instructions into Persian. The Europeans began to be fascinated by the Iranians and their culture — Shakespeare's Twelfth Night (1601–02), for example, makes two references (at II.5 and III.4) to 'the Sophy', then the English term for the Shahs of Iran. The Shah had the absolute power over the state - and complex system of bureaucracy and rules was established so they can prevent any type of fraud. [211] According to Chardin, they were also more abundant than in the Mughal or Ottoman Empires, where they were less frequent but larger. With the Safavid state and its territories secured, in 1738 Nader conquered the Hotaki's last stronghold in Kandahar; in the same year, in need of fortune to aid his military careers against his Ottoman and Russian imperial rivals, he started his invasion of the wealthy but weak Mughal Empire accompanied by his Georgian subject Erekle II,[152] occupying Ghazni, Kabul, Lahore, and as far as Delhi, in India, when he completely humiliated and looted the militarily inferior Mughals. This was the beginning of the East India Company's long-running interest in Iran. The primary court language [with Abbas I's reign (r. 1588–1629)] remained Turkish. It was perhaps this sort of attitude towards the rest of the world that accounted for the ignorance of Persians regarding other countries of the world. [138], Due to his obsessive fear of assassination, Shah Abbas either put to death or blinded any member of his family who aroused his suspicion. Examples of such were the trade and artisan guilds, which had started to appear in Iran from the 1500s. The Safavid dynasty had its origin in the Safavid order of Sufism, which was established in the city of Ardabil in the Azerbaijan region. In general, the farmers lived in comfort, and they were well paid and wore good clothes, although it was also noted that they were subject to forced labour and lived under heavy demands. [73] Under the Peace, the Ottomans agreed to restore Yerevan, Karabakh and Nakhjuwan to the Safavids and in turn would retain Mesopotamia (Iraq) and eastern Anatolia. Tabriz was the center of this industry. [45] According to Arnold J. Toynbee,[235], In the heyday of the Mughal, Safawi, and Ottoman regimes New Persian was being patronized as the language of litterae humaniores by the ruling element over the whole of this huge realm, while it was also being employed as the official language of administration in those two-thirds of its realm that lay within the Safawi and the Mughal frontiers. Martha's mother Theodora—better known as Despina Khatun[40]—was a Pontic Greek princess, the daughter of the Grand Komnenos John IV of Trebizond. [64], At the downfall of Husain Khan, Tahmāsp asserted his rule. "[195] Lastly, due to the large amount of Georgians, Circassians, and Armenians at the Safavid court (the gholams and in the harem), the Georgian, Circassian and Armenian languages were spoken as well, since these were their mother tongues. The legal system was built up of two branches: civil law, which had its roots in sharia, received wisdom, and urf, meaning traditional experience and very similar to the Western form of common law. The legal system was built up of two branches: civil law, which had its roots in sharia, received wisdom, and urf, meaning traditional experience and very similar to the Western form of common law. Robbers had their right wrists amputated the first time, and sentenced to death on any subsequent occasion. [143] Overland trade grew notably however, as Iran was able to further develop its overland trade with North and Central Europe during the second half of the seventeenth century. Safavid history begins with the establishment of the Safaviyya by its eponymous founder Safi-ad-din Ardabili (1252–1334). As a result of the Mongol conquest and the relative religious tolerance of the Ilkhanids, Shiʻi dynasties were re-established in Iran, Sarbedaran in Khorasan being the most important. In addition the shah's personal bodyguard, made up exclusively of Caucasian ghulāms, was dramatically increased to 3,000. [200], In Safavid Iran there was little distinction between theology and jurisprudence, or between divine justice and human justice, and it all went under Islamic jurisprudence (fiqh). In a number of ways the Safavids affected the development of the modern Iranian state: first, they ensured the continuance of various ancient and traditional Persian institutions, and transmitted these in a strengthened, or more 'national', form; second, by imposing Ithna 'Ashari Shi'a Islam on Iran as the official religion of the Safavid state, they enhanced the power of mujtahids. Shah Abbas I the Great is considered the greatest of the Every office had a deputy or superintendent, whose job was to keep records of all actions of the state officials and report directly to the Shah. The Safavid shahs established the Twelver school of Shia Islam as the official religion of the empire, marking one of the most important turning points in Muslim history. The Safavid shahs established the Twelver school of Shia Islam as the official religion of the empire, marking one of the most important turning points in Muslim history. In 1527 Tahmāsp demonstrated his desire by shooting an arrow at Div Soltān before the assembled court. 220–5. [87] Shortly after the installation of Ismail II on August 22, 1576, Haydar was beheaded. 900–901, tr. [80] This was a huge impedance for the authority of the Shah, and furthermore, it undermined any developments without the agreeing or shared profit of the Qizilbash. The Safavids launched a vigorous campaign to convert what was then a predominantly Sunni population by persuasion and by force. Islam played an especially important role in defining the Ottoman–Safavid relationship. More importantly, for the first time in Iranian history, a substantial infantry corps of musketeers (, Artillery Corps: with the help of Westerners, he also formed an artillery corps of 12 000 men, although this was the weakest element in his army. By this time, the bulk of the Safaviyya were nomadic Oghuz Turkic-speaking clans from Asia Minor and Azerbaijan and were known as Qizilbash "Red Heads" because of their distinct red headgear. [195] As a result of Abbas' reforms, they held high offices in the army, the administration and the royal household. [191], Next in authority were the generals: the General of the Royal Troops (the Shahsevans), General of the Musketeers, General of the Ghulams and The Master of Artillery. 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